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How does fiber optic cable work?

Decades ago, it was hard to imagine using cables that could transmit signals for miles away. Because traditional copper cables are unable to carry out high-speed and long-distance transmission, communication is restricted geographically. With the invention of optical fiber cable, the speed of communication is developing rapidly. Moreover, the transmission worldwide
today takes only a fraction of a second. The use of optical cable has promoted the rapid popularization of Internet technology and network services, and all sectors of the world have seen rapid growth.

What is optical fiber technology?
In the simplest form, optical fiber technology uses glass or plastic wires to transmit data in the form of light waves. It uses digital transmission instead of analog data transmission. Fiber optic cable helps to transmit at high speed, because interference with copper cable is very small. Although light travels at a speed of 3,00000 km / sec in vacuum, it travels at 2/3 speed of light in a fiber optic cable. A tiny fiber line can carry millions of phone calls.
How does optical fiber transmission work?
Optical fiber transmits data in the form of light. As everyone knows, the purpose of transmission cable is to allocate data between computers, telephone or digital equipment. Electronic devices can not process data in the form of light, but rather process electronic signals. Therefore, in optical fiber technology, the electronic signals generated by the device are converted into light waves and transmitted at high speed through the optical cable. The device at the other end converts the optical signal to the electronic signal for processing. Laser beams are used to produce light waves. For example, if you want to switch over to a telephone through a fiber optic cable, the device or phone will generate analog signals. Analog signals are converted into digital signals. Every time we transmit a bit of data, one end of the cable will scintillate the laser. The laser switch can be opened and closed billions of times persecond, sending billions of times per second. The device at the other end receives the flashing light and converts it back to the digital signal.

Type of optical cable
There are two types of optical cable, single-mode optical fiber and multi-mode optical fiber. The term pattern represents the way light travels in a cable.
Single mode optical cable: single mode optical cable is the fiber line that only allows the beam to pass along a straight line. These cables are very small and only 5-10 microns in diameter. Cable, television and telephone communications use single-mode fiber optic cables. Single mode cables can transmit signals over long distances.
Multimode optical cable: multimode optical cable is 10 times larger than single-mode optical cable. In multi-mode cables, multiple light waves can propagate in different paths. Multimode cable is used for short distance data transmission.

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